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  1. #1
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    Default Every tried just the coca leaves?

    Hi, this is just a quick query to see if anyone has ever tried chewing the leaves without all the fancy processing that gives us cocaine. I'm not personally attracted to the ah famous powder, but when it comes to the original plant I'm more intrigued. I was the same with opiates, more interested in trying the original botanical than the processed version.

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    Source: Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants - Ethnopharmacology & its Applications Christian Ratsch

    *This excerpt is provided for informational purposes only.


    Preparation and Dosage
    Coca leaves can be chewed, smoked or otherwise burned and inhaled, or ingested in the form of an extract (tea, decoction, tincture, etc.).

    By far the most common method of ingestion is chewing or, more precisely, sucking the leaves. In the Andes, coca quids are usually known as acullico, and coca chewing is known as acullicar.

    At the beginning of the Incan period, coca leaves were chewed together
    with tobacco leaves (see Nicotiana tabacum), a practice that was also observed during the colonial period but now appears to have largely disappeared.

    The Swiss naturalist Johann Jacob von Tschudi (1818–1889), who also was the first to observe and report the use of angel’s trumpet (see Brugmansia san-guinea), provided a very thorough description of the Andean use of coca that still applies today:


    At least three times, but normally four times per day, the Indians rest from their work so that they may chew coca. For this purpose, they carefully remove the individual leaves from the Huallqui (bag), remove the veins, place the divided leaf into their mouth, and chew this for as long as it takes for a proper ball to form under their molars, they then take a thin, moistened little stick of wood and dip this into slaked lime and then place this together with the adhering powder into the ball of coca in their mouths; they repeat this a couple of times until it has the proper spice; some of the copious amounts of saliva, which mixes with the green juice of the
    leaves, is spit out, but most of this is swallowed. When the ball no longer produces enough juice, they throw it away and begin with another. I have often watched how a father would pass an almost juiceless ball to his little boy, who eagerly took it into his mouth and chewed on it for a long while. (In Bühl and Buess 1958, 3052 f.)

    The tiny flowers of the coca bush Erythroxylum coca var. coca The leaves of the coca bush Erythroxylum coca retain their elasticity when dried. “I myself used coca over a period of eight years during my work with the Indians of the Amazon, and I have never found it harmful, not to mention addictive.”

    RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES
    “COCA IN THE NORTHWEST AMAZON” (1980, 53)

    The coca leaves must be mixed with an alkaline substance (known as “sweetening” the coca quid) for the cocaine to be released so that it can be absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth (Cruz Sánchez and Guillén 1948; Rivier 1981; Wiedemann
    1979, 280). In South America, either plant ash or burned/slaked lime from various sources is used for this purpose (Gantzer et al. 1975, 10).

    In the Andes, coca is chewed together with what is known as llipta (Quechuan), scrapings from a cake of ash. Llipta—also known as chile, llucta, llinta, lliptu, and tocra—is made from the ashes of various plants (see the table on pages 247–48). The ashes are produced not by burning the plants but by roasting them thoroughly. To do this, the plant pieces are placed in a metal or ceramic pot. The pot is kept over a fire until the plant pieces break down into an ashlike powder. The ashes are then moistened with lemon juice, boiling water, chicha (maize beer), sugarcane schnapps (alcohol), sweetened tea (Camellia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis), salt
    water, or even urine and kneaded together with a carrier substance such as potato flour or starch. The mixture is formed into large disks, small pyramids, snakes, etc., and allowed to dry in the air for a day (Bühler and Buess 1958, 3054; Franquemont et al. 1990, 66 f.*). When dried, the llipta is as hard as a rock. Pieces are broken off and added to the coca quids.

    In Bolivia and northwestern Argentina, coca leaves are now chewed with sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonato de sodio, bica, yuspe), which is sold in plastic bags weighing 20 g. The Mataco (Wichi, “people of the place”) chew coca in the style of the Andes, whereby they “eat” the entire leaf. They stuff their mouths so full that their faces have an enormous bulge. They then simply toss some llipta (sodium bicarbonate) into their open mouths.

    A variety of substances may be added to coca quids in order to modify their psychoactive or medicinal effects or to make the effects more specific. In the triangle of countries formed by Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, coca quids may be chewed together with the ashes of the flowers and fruits (without seeds) of a large columnar cactus (Trichocereus pasacana) that is frequently confused with the San Pedro cactus (cf. Trichocereus pachanoi) (C. M. Torres, pers. comm.). It is possible that the (main) alkaloid of the cactus, candicine,133 alters the effects of the coca.

    The Argentinean Mataco obtained their yista (= llipta) from the ashes of the cactus flesh of
    a Trichocereus species (tso’nahlak). This was said to potentiate the effects of the coca (cf. Trichocereus spp.).

    There are also a number of substances used to aromatize coca quids and improve their taste. Leaves of the rosary pea (Abrus precatorius L.; cf. Rhynchosia pyramidalis), known in northern Peru as misquina, which are roasted beforehand so that they will not
    produce any toxic effects, impart a licorice-like taste to coca quids. The leaves of Tagetes pusilla H.B.K.134 (cf. Tagetes spp.), known in southern Peru as pampa anis (“prairie anise”), are also used to lend the coca quids an aromatic taste (Plowman 1980, 254).

    The Peruvian Campa Indians like to add the bark of the chamairo vine (Mussatia hyacinthina [Standl.] Sandw.; Bignoniaceae), which is also used for medicinal purposes, to their coca. This practice can also be observed in other parts of Peru; the bark is sold in
    markets for precisely this purpose (Plowman 1980, 255 f.).
    The Amazonian preparation is very different from the Andean and is identical among all the tribes except one. The leaves of the Amazonian coca (E. coca var. ipadú) are plucked fresh daily from the bush and immediately roasted on a cassava baking tin. This roasting must be done gently and carefully so that the leaves do not carbonize. The men then pound the roasted leaves in large mortars made from hollowed-out trunks of the hardwood trees Tabebuia spp., mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni [L.] Jacq.), or chontaduro palm (Guilielma speciosa Martius). While they are pounding, the leaves of other plants are turned into ashes over a charcoal fire.

    The gray
    ash is mixed with the green coca powder in more or less equal amounts and is then ready for consumption. A person typically takes a spoonful, which he or she carefully moistens with saliva and then pushes between the cheek and the teeth with the tongue. There, the mixture slowly dissolves over a period of thirty to forty-five minutes and is gradually swallowed.

    Of all the Amazonian coca additives, by far the most popular are the ashes of the large, fresh leaves of Cecropia sciadophylla, known variously as pêtuy’, göra-ñá, guarumo, or setico (Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 313*). Other species from the genus Cecropia as
    well as Pourouma cecropiaefolia are also utilized (Plowman 1979b, 47). Occasionally, other plant substances may be used as well.

    The Witoto sometimes add some powdered root of Chelonanthus alatus to the coca/ash mixture to lend it a “bitter taste” (Schultes 1980, 57) or mix it with dried and powdered leaves of Tachia guianesis Aublet (Gentianaceae) to improve the taste (Schultes and
    Raffauf 1986, 276*).

    A typical cake of ash (llipta) from the southern Andes, scrapings of which are added to the coca leaves.

    In northwestern Argentina, industrially manufactured baking powder (sodium bicarbonate) is usually used as an alkaline coca additive. “Coca enhances performance and suppresses both hunger and tiredness. But its primary effect is to induce the latent power of those visions which lead one closer to the ‘reality of dreams.’ ”
    WOLFGANG MÜLLER
    DIE INDIANER AMAZONIENS [THE INDIANS OF AMAZONIA]
    (1995, 197*)

    An unusual method of preparing coca was discovered among a small group of the Tanimuka (on the Río Apaporis, Colombia). They aromatize the ashes of Cecropia leaves with incense. To do this, they make incisions in the bark of Protium heptaphyllim March and
    tap the resin, which they then allow to age for three to four months. The resin,135 which is known in Amazonia under the names o-mo-tá, hee-ta-ma-ká, brea, pergamín, tacamahaca, and breuzinho, is broken into small pieces and rolled into a semidried leaf of an
    Ischnosiphon species to make a kind of cigarette. The men who are involved in the preparation of this coca will put this cigarette in their mouths and light it, but they will not inhale. Instead, they blow through the resin-filled tube so that the aromatic smoke flows out of
    the other end. When the cigarette is burning well, they place its tip into the Cecropia ashes for a couple of minutes to fumigate it.

    The scent is absorbed by the plant ash, thereby giving the finished mixture of coca and ash a resinous, incenselike aroma (Schultes 1957;


    Schultes and Raffauf 1990, 117*; Uscátegui M. 1959, 297*).

    The Makú Indians use their coca (ipadu, botô) in a manner different from that of all the other Amazonian tribes. The leaves are roasted, mixed with the ashes of fresh green banana leaves (Musa spp.), and finely crushed in a ritual context. This powder is then mixed with flour (cassava, farina, tapioca) and made into bread. The bread is prepared fresh every evening and is regarded as food; it is not just chewed but properly eaten (Prance 1972a, 19*).

    The coca/ash powder is also sniffed (cf. snuffs) in some regions of Colombia, although such use has been little documented (Schultes 1980, 53).

    Coca can be combined with almost any other psychoactive substance. Coca will sometimes even potentiate the effects of another substance, e.g., Anadenanthera colubrina. Coca leaves are also suitable for use as a stimulating ingredient in incense and smoking blends and are especially well suited for smoking together with Cannabis sativa.

    When chewing coca, one should avoid drinking maté (Ilex paraguariensis) entirely, not because the two substances produce a negative synergy, but because the anaesthetized mucous membranes of the mouth are unable to detect the temperature of the maté
    and can be scalded very easily without notice. Chronic coca chewing will occasionally result in mild inflammations of the mucous membranes.

    A tea made of the leaves and bark of Pagamea macrophylla Spruce ex Benth. may be drunk to counteract such
    problems (Schultes 1980, 57).

    The usual dosage for a medicinal tea is given as 5 g of dried coca leaves (Morton 1977, 180*). Much larger amounts are consumed, however, when the coca is chewed. With an average use of 60 g of good leaves per day, it can be assumed that 100 to 200 mg of cocaine are being absorbed. In some Amazon tribes (e.g., the Yucuna), it is not unusual to observe men consuming up to 1 pound of coca/ash powder daily (Schultes 1980, 51).

    When smoked, even small amounts (0.1 g or more) of the roasted leaves will produce stimulating effects. The Omagua smoke leaves as they chew them (Bühler and Buess 1958, 3054).

    Ritual Use
    The ritual uses of coca are manifold. The leaves are used as parts of offerings and for oracles, socially integrative forms of interaction, shamanic healings, initiations, and tribal festivals. The ritual use of coca is probably as old as the use of the leaves in general, at least five thousand years.

    Unfortunately, little is known about the use of coca in pre-Hispanic times. Grave goods clearly indicate that coca
    was given to the dead for their journey to the other world.

    The representations of coca chewing contained on pre-Columbian artifacts also point to a very ancient ritual use.

    The ethnohistorical evidence from the colonial period is rather limited and was obviously filtered through the “devil’s glasses” of the Catholic Spanish. In The Naturall and Moral Historie of the West Indies (ca. 1570), José de Acosta provides an amazingly unprejudiced account:

    “The Ingua [= Inca] are said to have used coca as an exquisite and regal thing which they most often used in their offerings by burning it in honor of their gods.”

    The significance of coca in the kingdom of the Incas has been summarized as follows:

    In ancient Peru, where coca was venerated as a gift of the gods of the sun, there were few ceremonies which did not require the drug. At great festivities, coca leaves were burned as fumigants, and priests adorned with coca wreaths would use the smoke to divine.

    Only with a quid of coca in his mouth could one dare to approach the gods, and coca was one of the gifts offered to the priests. The coca offering had a special significance. (Bühler and Buess 1958, 3061)

    Coca is sacred to the Indians because it makes possible the connection between humans and the gods (Allen 1988, 132; Lloyd and Lloyd 1911) and also deepens the contact between people, e.g., as a love magic and an aphrodisiac141 (Mortimer 1974, 429).

    In northern Chile, the herbage of an Amaranthus species is added to coca quids. Various species of the genus Chenopodium are traditionally used as coca additives.
    Last edited by NorthlandSalvia; 08-03-2017 at 01:58 PM. Reason: format (re)
    " Consciousness has to do with energy and light. It is really very simple, neither animals nor people have consciousness. It is plants that have consciousness.

    Animals get consciousness by eating plants."

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    Weed in NZ
    I bet that the sensation of it is very similar to having a strong cup of coffee or being an occasional smoker of tobacco (without built up tolerance). It's a pity things are so hyper-regulated. Yet another thing that I mainly just want to try -- like kratom, like khat -- is a illegal while the guy down the street is allowed to pickle himself on whisky.

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